We are a team of board certified physicians who routinely evaluate cases of TBI, concussion, and whiplash injuries. After taking a thorough history coupled with a detailed physical examination and review of medical records including imaging, we can comment on causation of injuries as well as prognosis and reasonableness and necessity of treatment.
Dr. Shawn Zardouz has researched the effects of TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation) among veterans diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). He has also studied the effects of onabotulinum toxin (botox) injections among patients with chronic migraine.
When does Traumatic Brain Injury Occur?
Traumatic brain injuries occur when a sudden trauma, such as a violent blow or jolt to the head, causes brain damage.
Causes of Traumatic Brain injury
The causes of traumatic brain injuries are diverse; some of the common causes include vehicle accidents, sports injuries, falls, domestic violence, and gunshot wounds.
Symptoms of Traumatic Brain injury
The symptoms of traumatic brain injury can range from mild to severe, depending upon the extent of damage to the brain. Mild traumatic brain injuries may include symptoms such as loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes, headache, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, fatigue, mood swings, memory problems, and difficulty in concentrating. Moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries may be associated with additional symptoms which include persistent headache, repeated vomiting or nausea, seizures, inability to awaken from sleep, dilated pupils, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in extremities, and loss of coordination.
Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain injury
Traumatic brain injuries can be diagnosed with a neurological examination and imaging studies such as CT and MRI scans.
Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury
Treatment options depend on the extent of injury to the brain, and may include:
- Medications for pain, headaches, and seizures
- Injection of Botox to treat muscle spasms
- Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT)
- Stretching and physical therapy to keep joints flexible and improve muscle strength
- Occupational therapy to regain skills in performing daily tasks
- Surgery for severe cases, such as skull fracture